This is an annotated bibliography of all of papers on fluctuation microscopy we know about, both theory and experiment, in reverse chronological order. Links are to local versions of our papers where the journal allows, and to online version of the journal otherwise. You or your institution must have a subscription to the appropriate online journal to access those papers. We will however provide authorized reprints of any of our papers upon request to

If you have written something on (or using) fluctuation microscopy that’s not listed here, please let us know! This page is maintained by the Voyles group , but it contains publications by other authors. If you are interested in just our publications, please see the group publications page.

Nanometer-scale order in amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 analyzed by fluctuation electron microscopy“, Min-Ho Kwon, Bong-Sub Lee, S. N. Bogle, L. N. Nittala, S. G. Bishop, J. R. Abelson, S. Raoux, Byung-ki Cheong, Ki-Bum Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021923 (2007).
Uses FEM to measure the structure driving the amorphous to crystalline phase change in Ge2Sb2Te5. The speed of the phase change is correlated to increase medium-range order in FEM, leading to the proposal that FEM is measuring the population of crystalline nuclei present in the amorphous phase of the films.
When structural noise is the signal: speckle statistics in fluctuation electron microscopy M. M. J. Treacy, Ultramicroscopy 107, 166 (2007).
Rebuttal of Jungk et al., pointing out the errors in experiment and analysis which lead them to their incorrect conclusions.  
Electron beam induced crystallization of amorphous Al-based alloys in the TEM“, W. G. Stratton, J. Hamann, J. H. Perepezko, and P. M. Voyles, Intermetallics 14, 1061 (2006).
E-beam damage tests on Al92Sm8 and Al88Y7Fe5 amorphous metals. Both alloys crystallize within a few minutes under a 120 kV TEM beam, necessitating low(er)-dose measurements than amorphous semiconductors, for example.
Homogeneous Silica Formed by the Oxidation of Si(100) in Hyperthermal Atomic Oxygen”, M. Kisa, T. K. Minton, K. van Benthem, W. G. Stratton, X. Chen, L. Li, P. M. Voyles, S. J. Pennycook, and J. C. Yang, J. Spacecraft and Rockets 43, 431 (2006).
FEM and a variety of other analytical techniques showing that SiO2 formed by 10 eV atomic oxygen has a local structure much more like quartz than SiO2 formed molecular oxygen at room temperature.
Fluctuation microscopy: a probe of medium range order“, M. M. J. Treacy, J. M. Gibson, L. Fan, D. J. Paterson, and I. McNulty, Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 2899 (2005).
Major review article by one of the inventors of fluctuation electron microscopy. A comprehensive source for all the experimental and theoretical results to date.
Fluctuation microscopy: what it is?” M. M. J. Treacy, Microscopy Today (2005).
Short introduction to FEM based on Treacy’s tutorial presentation at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2005.
Dark field microscopy for diffraction analysis of amorphous carbon solids“, W. E. McBride, D. R. McKenzie, D. G. McCulloch, D. J. H. Cockayne, T.C. Petersen, J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 351, 413 (2005).
FEM simulations from models of amorphous carbon. Introduces a “orientational” variance calculation based a generalization of the Debye-Scherrer formula. Unfortunately, the models are CRNs with little MRO, so the simulated V(k) conveys little information.
Fluctuation microscopy – a tool for examining medium-range order in noncrystalline systems“, L. Fan, I. McNulty, D. Paterson, M. M. J. Treacy and J. M. Gibson, Nuc. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. B, 238, 196 (2005).
First report on x-ray fluctuation electron microscopy, using a coherent x-ray microprobe from the Advanced Photon Source. The beam size and wavelength are both larger than the electron version, which makes this technique well-suited to studying medium-range order in molecular systems.
Hydrogen-induced modification of the medium-range structural order in amorphous silicon films“, L. N. Nittala, S. Jayaraman, B. A. Sperling, and J. R. Abelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241915 (2005).
Changes to paracrystalline MRO in amorphous silicon on post-deposition exposure to atomic hydrogen. The H athermally snips Si-Si bonds and allows them to reconfigure. In films with low starting MRO, the MRO descreases further. In films with high starting MRO, the MRO increases, suggesting that the MRO has crossed a stability boundary.
Aluminum nanoscale order in amorphous Al92Sm8 measured by fluctuation electron microscopy“, W. G. Stratton, J. Hamann, J. H. Perepezko, P. M. Voyles, S. V. Khare, X. Mao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141910 (2005).
Reports nanoscale Al-like order in amorphous Al92Sm8 formed by rapid quenching, but not in Al92Sm8formed by intense mechanical deformation.  The degree of order in the uncrsystallized portion of the quenched material decreases with annealing.  These results are consistent with the quenched-in nuclei model of primary crystallization.
Critical assessment of the speckle statistics in fluctuation electron microscopy and comparison to electron diffraction“, T. Jungk, T. Walther, W. Mader, Ultramicroscopy 104, 206 (2005).
Concludes based on experiments on a-Ge and polycrystalline Au that the fluctuation microscopy V(k) contains no additional information than the large-area scattered intensity I(k). They obtained this result because they used too small an instrumental resolution; similar results were obtained in “Variable coherence microscopy“. See the rebuttal by Treacy above.
“Medium-range order in high Al-content amorphous alloys measured by fluctuation electron microscopy”, W. G. Stratton, P. M. Voyles, J. Hamann, J. H. Perepezko, Microsc. Microanal. 10 (Suppl. 2), 788 (2004).
Conference proceedings with a brief follow-up to “MRO in high-Al content amorphous alloys“.
“Medium-range order in high Al-content amorphous alloys measured by fluctuation electron microscopy”, W. G. Stratton, J. Hamann, J. H. Perepezko, P. M. Voyles, in Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Metals, MRS Symposium Proceedings Vol. 806, MM9.4.1 (2004)..
Initial FEM measurements on Al92Sm8 metallic glass. This glass shows very different devitrification microstructure depending on its thermal history. This report shows that thermal history which doesn’t change the structure factor changes the FEM signature dramatically.
“Fluctuation microscopy studies of medium-range ordering in amorphous diamond-like carbon films”, X. Chen, J. P. Sullivan, T. A. Friedmann, J. M. Gibson, Appl. Phys. Lett.  84, 2823 (2004).
FEM measurements show strong diamond-like MRO in a-C thin films with high sp3 bonding.  This MRO is converted to graphite-like MRO on annealing at high temperatures.
“Insights into ‘near-frictionless carbon films'”, J. A. Johnson, J. B. Woodford, X. Chen, J. Anderson, A. Erdemir, G. F. Fenske, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7765 (2004).
Investigates hydrogenated amorphous carbon films deposited by microwave CVD by a number of techniques, including FEM.  The degree of MRO as measured by FEM correlates strongly with the friction coefficient of the films, which are an general extremely low.
“Evidence from atomistic simulations of fluctuation electron microscopy for preferred local orientations in amorphous silicon”, S. V. Khare, S. M. Nakhmanson, P. M. Voyles, P. Keblinski, J. R. Abelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 745 (2004).
FEM simulations show that local orientation correlations between grains in paracrystalline Si effect the FEM signal, as does the shape of the grains.  Models with locally aligned grains reproduce for the first time the highly-ordered FEM signatures seen experimentally in “Control of MRO via ion bombardment” and “absence of an abrupt phase change“.
“Evidence for orientational medium range order in fluctuation-electron microscopy observations of a-Si”, S. V. Khare, S. M. Nakhmanson, P. M. Voyles, P. Keblinski, J. R. Abelson, Microsc. Microanal. 10 (Suppl. 2), 820 (2004).
Conference proceeding based on “preferred local orientations.
“Fluctuation Electron Microscopy on a-Ge and Polycrystalline Gold T. Jungk, T. Walther, M. Mader, Microsc. Microanal. 11 Suppl. 3, 152 (2003).
Demonstration FEM experiments on a-Ge and polycrystalline Au. The a-Ge experiments reproduce a typical tetrahedral amorphous semiconductor trace. The polycrystalline gold experiments show peaks at the Au diffraction conditions, as expected.
“A quantitative measure of medium-range order in amorphous materials from transmission electron micrographs” R. K Dash, P. M. Voyles, J. M. Gibson, M. M. J. Treacy, P. Keblinski, J. Phys: Cond. Mat. 15, S2425 (2003).
Proposes the intensity autocorrelation function (as opposed to the variance) as a measure of MRO in dark-field micrographs. Shows in PC-Si models and a-Si experimental data that the characteristic decay length of the autocorrelation function correlates with the degree of PC MRO.
“Using fluctuation microscopy to characterize structural order in metallic glasses” J. Li, X. Gu, and T. C. Hufnagel, Microsc. Microanal. 9, 509 (2003).
An expansion of “MRO in Metallic Glass” by the same authors. Shows measurable difference in Zr-based glasses depending on composition, glass preparation technique (bulk casting vs. melt spinning), and TEM thinning method (electropolishing vs ion milling).
“Control of Medium-Range Order in Amorphous Silicon via Ion and Neutral Bombardment” J. E. Gerbi, P. M. Voyles, M. M. J. Treacy, J. M. Gibson, and J. R. Abelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3665 (2003).
Reports modification of MRO in a-Si:H deposited by sputtering using a flux of Ar ions. FEM measurements are correlated with Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry.
“Medium-range Order in Amorphous Silicon Measured by Fluctuation Electron Microscopy” P. M. Voyles and J. R. Abelson, in Critical Review of Amorphous and Microcrystalline Materials and Solar Cells, H. Fritzsche and S. Guha, eds.; Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 78, 85 (2003).
A review of the FEM work on a-Si and a-Si:H. Mostly material that appeared in various other papers in this bibliography, but it does also contain some new work on a-Si:H deposited by different methods and the effects of light-soaking on these different materials.
“Morphology and Crystallization Kinetics in HfO2 Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition” M.-Y. Ho, H. Gong, G. D. Wilk, B. W. Busch, M. L. Green, P. M. Voyles, D. A. Muller, M. Bude, W. H. Lin, A. See, M. E. Loomans, S. K. Lahiri, P. I. Räisänen, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1477 (2003).
Structural properties of HfO2 films deposited by atomic layer deposition. HfO2 is a potential high-k replacement gate dielectric material. FEM measurements indicate that under some circumstances, amorphous HfO2 shows a very high degree of order. Also contains some FEM data for SiO2. These are the first applications of FEM to oxide materials.
Fluctuation Microscopy Studies of Aluminum Oxides Exposed to Cl Ions“, X. Chen, J. Sullivan, C. Barbour, C. Johnson, G. Zhou, J. Yang, in Spatially Resolved Characterization of Local Phenomena in Materials and Nanostructures, MRS Symposium Proceedings Vol. 738, G1.4 (2002).
Exposure of an amorphous Al2O3 passivation layer to Cl ions reduces makes it more subject to corrosion.  This paper uses FEM to demonstrate a structural change in the Al2O3 under exposure to Cl ions which is distinct from structure of as-grown Al2O3 and Al2O3 exposed to K1SO4.
“Controlling shear band behavior metallic glasses through microstructural design”, T.C. Hufnagel, C. Fana, R.T. Ott, J. Li, S. Brennan, Intermetallics 10 1163 (2002).
Mostly a discussion of shear bands in Zr-based bulk metallic glass, but it also contains FEM data indicating a difference in MRO based on a difference in glass composition.
“Quantitative analysis of annealing-induced structure disordering in ion-implanted amorphous silicon” J.-Y. Cheng, J. M. Gibson, P. M. Baldo, and B. J. Kestel, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A 20, 1855 (2002).
Effects of thermal annealing on a-Si formed by ion implantation. An extension of results reported in “Ion-implanted Amorphous Silicon”.
“Electron nanodiffraction methods for measuring medium-range order” J. M. Cowley, Ultramicroscopy90, 197 (2002).
Discusses various means of measuring MRO using nanodiffraction, including the use of a thin annular detector as in Stem Imaging with a Thin Annular Detector, studying correlations in groups of diffraction patterns, studying the persistence of bright spots in patterns as the beam is scanned, and measuring the size of features in diffraction patterns and annular detector images. Measurements are made on SiO2 and SiN.
“Fluctuation Microscopy in the STEM” P. M. Voyles and D. A. Muller, Ultramicroscopy 93 147 (2002).
Discusses the implementation of fluctuation microscopy using microdiffraction in a STEM instead of dark-field imaging in a TEM. Using the STEM makes variable resolution fluctuation microscopy much easier. Demonstrates agreement between STEM and TEM fluctuation microscopy results.
“Medium-Range Order in Metallic Glasses Studied by Fluctuation Microscopy” J. Li, X. Gu, and T. C. Hufnagel, Microsc. Microanal. 7 (Suppl 2: Proceedings), 1260 (2001).
Initial report on FEM on Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Al metallic glass. Concludes that there is a measurable FEM signal, although there is some dependence on sample preparation conditions.
“Control of Medium Range Order in Amorphous Silicon via Ion and Neutral Bombardment” J. E. Gerbi, P. M. Voyles, M. M. J. Treacy, J. M. Gibson, Wangchun C. Chen, B. J. Hauser, J. R. Abelson,Amorphous and Heterogeneous Silicon-Based Thin Films – 2001, J. B. Boyce et al., eds.; Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 664, 2001, p. A27.3.1.
Reports modification of MRO in a-Si:H and a-Si:D by bombardment with 10-50 eV ions during the sputtering growth process.
“Observations of Structural Order in Ion-Implanted Amorphous Silicon” J-Y. Cheng, J. M. Gibson, and D. C. Jacobson, J. Mat. Res. 16, 3030 (2001).
Demonstrates a reduction in MRO on thermal annealing in a-Si formed by Si ion implantation similar to that observed in a-Ge in Diminished MRO. This is interpreted as a structural relaxation from a paracrystalline to CRN-like structure. Also reports a difference in MRO along the implantation profile.
“Fluctuation Microscopy Studies of Medium-Range Order Structures in Tetrahedral Amorphous Semiconductors” Xidong Chen, J. M. Gibson, J. Sullivan, T. Friedman, and P. M. Voyles, Nano- and Microcrystalline Semiconductor Materials and Structures, P. M. Fauchet et al., eds.; Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 638, 2001, p. F14.40.1.
A comparison of fluctuation microscopy results on tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and a-Si. ta-C is also found to have a paracrystalline structure.
“Increased Medium-Range Order in Amorphous Silicon with Increased Substrate Temperature” P. M. Voyles, J. E. Gerbi, M. M. J. Treacy, J. M. Gibson, and J. R. Abelson, J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 293-295, 45 (2001).
A somewhat more detailed description of the experiment and results reported in “Absence of an Abrupt Phase Change”, including a discussion of why the second peak in V(k) changes more rapidly with substrate temperature than the first.
“The Structure and Physical Properties of Paracrystalline Atomistic Models of Amorphous Silicon” P. M. Voyles, N. Zotov, S. M. Nakhmanson, D. A. Drabold, J. M. Gibson, M. M. J. Treacy, and P. J. Keblinski, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 4437 (2001).
Comprehensive analysis of paracrystalline molecular dynamics models of a-Si, including physical structure, topology, vibrational structure, Raman spectra, and electron structure. Demonstrates a connection between Raman spectroscopy and medium range order. Includes comparison to experimental data.
“Experimental Procedures and Data Analysis for Fluctuation Microcopy” P. M. Voyles, M. M. J. Treacy, J. M. Gibson, H-C. Jin, and J. R. Abelson, Fall MRS 1999, Advances in Materials Problem Solving with the Electron Microscope, J. Bentley, U. Dahmen, C. Allen, I. Petrov, eds; Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 589, (2001), p. 155.
Details methods necessary to perform accurate fluctuation microscopy measurements in the TEM, including MTF deconvolution, correcting for incoherent mass-thickness variance, and the effects of average foil thickness.
“Absence of an Abrupt Phase Change from Polycrystalline to Amorphous in Silicon with Deposition Temperature” P. M. Voyles, J. E. Gerbi, M. M. J. Treacy, J. M. Gibson, and J. R. Abelson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5514 (2001).
Demonstrates a continuous evolution of MRO in a-Si as a function of substrate temperature during deposition using fluctuation microscopy. This is consistent with the paracrystalline model, but counter to the belief that there is a first-order, order-disorder phase transition between amorphous and polycrystalline growth.
“STEM imaging with a thin annular detector” J. M. Cowley, J. Electron Microscopy 50, 147 (2001).
A general discussion of the use of a thin annular detector (as opposed to a large high-angle detector) in STEM with different camera lengths. Notes that this mode is optically conjugate to the hollow-cone annular dark-field mode used for FEM, and shows two images. Also discusses the potential application of microdiffraction in the STEM to FEM.
“Realistic Models of Paracrystalline Silicon” S.M Nakhmanson, P.M Voyles, N. Mousseau, G.T. Barkema, D. A. Drabold, Phys. Rev. B 63, 235207 (2001).
Presents computer models of PC Si created by a variation on the Wooten, Winer, and Weaire bond-switching algorithm, unlike the molecular-dynamics technique used in “Paracrystallites Found” and“Structure and Properties”. Bond-switching produces models with a clean electronic density of states in the band-gap and the best agreement with fluctuation microscopy experiments so far. Some of the localized valence band tail states in these models are localized on the PC grain boundaries, suggesting that these grain boundaries may be electrically active.
Fluctuation Electron Microscopy of Medium-Range Order in Amorphous Silicon P. M. Voyles, Ph. D. dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001.
Summary of most of the experimental results and modeling work on a-Si. Chiefly notable for detailed practical instructions on performing fluctuation microscopy experiments and for a detailed derivation of all of the entire fluctuation microscopy theory starting from basic imaging principles in consistent notation. There is also a list of corrections.
“Comparative Fluctuation Microscopy Study of Medium-Range Order in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Deposited by Various Methods” P. M. Voyles, M. M. J. Treacy, H-C. Jin, J. R. Abelson, J. M. Gibson, J. Yang, S. Guha, and R. S. Crandall, in Amorphous and Heterogeneous Silicon Thin Films 2000, H. M. Branz, R. W. Collins, S. Guha, H. Okamoto, M. Stutzman, eds.; Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 609, (2000) p. A2.4.1.
Reports variable coherence measurements on hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering, plasma-enhance CVD (PECVD), high H-dilution PECVD, and hot-wire CVD. All the films are found to be paracrystalline, with the same degree of medium-range order in the as-deposited state. The H-dilution material contains small (5 nm) silicon crystals in a matrix with unchanged medium-range order.
“Topological Signatures of Medium Range Order in Amorphous Semiconductor Models” M. M. J. Treacy, P. M. Voyles, and J. M. Gibson, Spring MRS 2000, Amorphous and Heterogeneous Silicon Thin Films 2000, H. M. Branz, R. W. Collins, S. Guha, H. Okamoto, M. Stutzman, eds.; Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.609, (2000) p. A2.5.1.
Expansion of the Schlafli cluster idea from “Schlafli cluster topological analysis”. Presents Wells “path” and O’Keefe “circuit” variations of the cluster, and efficient algorithms for calculating both types of clusters and the coordination sequence for a model.
“Thermodynamics of Paracrystalline Silicon” P. M. Voyles, M. M. J. Treacy, and J. M. Gibson, Spring MRS 2000, New Methods, Mechanisms, and Models of Vapor Deposition, H. N. G. Wadley, G. Gilmer, and W. Barker, eds., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 616, (2000) p. 47.
Presents a simple thermodynamic model of paracrystalline silicon which is metastable at room temperature, crystallizes at high temperature, and relaxes toward a more disordered structure at medium temperature (as reported in “Diminished Medium-Range Order“). This model has the correct small-grain limit, unlike the model in “Paracrystallites Found.”
“Fluctuation Microscopy: A probe of Atomic Correlations in Disordered Materials” P. M. Voyles, J. M. Gibson, and M. M. J. Treacy, J. Electron Microscopy 49, 259 (2000).
Provides the a qualitative description of the technique and the information extracted from it. Investigates a reduced form of the four-body correlation function discussed in “Atom pair persistence“.  This is a good place to start.
“Schlafli Cluster Topological Analysis of Medium Range Order in Paracrystalline Amorphous Semiconductor Models” M. M. J. Treacy, P. M. Voyles, and J. M. Gibson, J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 266, 150 (2000).
Introduces the Schlafli cluster, the minimum meaningfully topologically crystalline unit, and applies it to identify the paracrystalline grains found in the molecular dynamics structures described in “Paracrystallites Found“.
“Atom pair persistence in disordered materials from fluctuation microscopy” J. M. Gibson, M. M. J. Treacy, and P. M. Voyles Ultramicroscopy 83, 169 (2000).
Further theoretical development following “Variable coherence microscopy: a rich source“. Shows explicitly the dependence of the variance on the four-body correlation function, and introduces variable resolution microscopy with theory and simulations.
“Measurement of higher-order correlation functions in amorphous materials via coherent microdiffraction” J. M. Rodenburg, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 161 (EMAG99 Proceedings), 145 (1999).
Initial STEM FEM measurements on a-Ge, showing V(k) in qualitative agreement with data fromDiminished MRO.
Electron Diffraction Studies of Amorphous Materials W. E. McBride, Ph. D. dissertation, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 1999.
Contains a chapter on applications of FEM to amorphous carbon, chiefly through image simulations on molecular dynamics structures. The main topic overall is the method developed by McBride and Cockayne to measure the pair correlation function of small volumes of material by microdiffraction and deconvolution of the probe intensity profile.
Method for Detecting Subtle Spatial Structures by Fluctuation Microscopy Toshiya Iwai, P. M. Voyles, J. Murray Gibson, and Yoshitsugu Oono, Phys. Rev. B 60, 191 (1999).
Another slightly different theoretical tack focusing on extracting only higher-order cumulant functions from the fluctuation microscopy data. This technique has not been experimentally implemented.
“The Structure of Ion-Implanted Amorphous Silicon” J. M. Gibson, J-Y. Cheng, P. M. Voyles, M. M. J. Treacy, and D. C. Jacobson, in Microstructural Processes in Irradiated Materials., S. J. Zinkle, G. Lucas, and R. Ewing, eds; Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 540, (1999) p. 27.
Describes initial measurements on ion-implanted a-Si, which indicate it shares the paracrystalline structure of thin-film a-Si and a-Ge.
Structural disorder induced in hydrogenated amorphous silicon by light soaking J. M. Gibson, M. M. J. Treacy, P. M. Voyles, H-C. Jin and J. R. Abelson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3093 (1998).
An observation similar to the previous one on a-Ge that in a-Si:H the paracrystalline to CRN transition may be driven by light soaking instead of thermal annealing. This may have implications for the Staebler-Wronski effect.
“Changes in the Medium Range Order of a-Si:H Thin Films Observed by Variable Coherence TEM” J. M. Gibson, M. M. J. Treacy, P. M. Voyles, H-C. Jin, J. R. Abelson, in Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Science and Technology 1998,, R. Schropp, H. M. Branz, M. Hack, I. Shimizu, and S. Wagner, eds; Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 507, (1999) p. 837.
Initial report suggesting the paracrystalline nature of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and changes in the structure on exposure to light.
Paracrystallites found in evaporated amorphous tetrahedral semiconductors M. M. J. Treacy, J. M. Gibson, and P. J. Keblinski, J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 231, 99 (1998).
An expansion of “Diminished Medium-Range Order”. Introduces the paracrystalline model of as-deposited amorphous semiconductors and describes the molecular dynamics structural simulations and the variable coherence microscopy simulations from those structures.
Diminished Medium-Range Order Observed in Annealed Amorphous Germanium J. M. Gibson and M. M. J. Treacy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1074 (1997).
Variable coherence observation of medium-range order in a-Ge which is reduced by thermal annealing.
“Variable coherence microscopy: a Rich Source of Structural Information from Disordered Systems”M. M. J. Treacy and J. M. Gibson, Acta Cryst. A52, 212 (1996).
Describes the variable coherence technique and data analysis and the first application of the technique to amorphous semiconductors (a-Si and a-Ge).
“Coherence and Multiple Scattering in ‘Z-contrast’ Images” M. M. J. Treacy and J. M. Gibson, Ultramicroscopy 52, 31 (1993).
This isn’t really a fluctuation microscopy paper, but it is the beginning of the theoretical development of dark field imaging of an arbitrary ensemble of atoms. Please note the erratum, Ultramicroscopy 54, 93 (1994)